Umlando ngempi yaseSandlwana (22 ku -Masingana 1879)/The Battle of Sandlwana (22 January 1879)
#Kuloba uKholo Khumalo iNxazonke
Impi yaseSandlwana yalwa mhla zingama 22 ku Masingana 1879 . Lempi yayiphakathi kukaZulu namaNgisi, uZulu ngaleso sikhathi wayebuswa iSilo u-Cetshwayo kaMpande . Kulempi uZulu wadla umhlanganiso . Impi yamaNgisi yayiningi ngesibalo ukudlula eyakwaZulu. Imbangela yokwanda kwempi yamaNgisi kwaba ukuthi yayimbandakanya namambuka ayehlubuke uZulu ayozimbandakanya namaNgisi. Enye imbangela kwaba ukuba khona kwesizwe saBatlokwa benkosi u-Hlubi kaMotha ukuzokwelekelela amaNgisi . Kanti nabo abamhlopje bebodwa babevele bebaningi ngoba kwakuqhamuke abamhlophe ababesuka koCanada , Austria , New Zealiland , Australia, America ,AmaNdiya nabanye. Inkosi u-Hlubi yanikela ngamabutho angama 800. Lawo mabutho aba yingxenye yebutho labohlanga elalibizwa ngokuthi i-ANNC (African Natal Native Contingent) . Leli butho labohlanga i-ANNC lalibuthwe amaNgisi ayeyizelamani o-Samuel no Robert Samuelson . LamaNgisi ayebuthe cishe zonke izinsizwa zengabade ezazingahambisani nombuso kaJininindi ka Ndaba . Ngamanye amazwi leli butho labe liyibutho lamambuka. Izinduna zalo kwakungo Stephen Mini, Jabez Molefe, Gabangaye Mchunu,Njengabantu Ngubane, Elijah Khambule noSimeon Khambule . Isibalo saleli butho ngaphambi kokuba inkosi u-Hlubi itheleke nebutho layo sasingama 8000 . Akugcinanga lapho, isibalo saleli butho sabuye sakhuphuka futhi ngoba inkosi u-Homoyi yaMabomvu yathumela izinsizwa ezazingama 500 ukuba ziyokwelekelela amaNgisi . Inkosi uNgcagca kaFabase Dlomo yona yathumela ikhulu, inkosi u-Nondise Luthuli nayo yathumela ikhulu, inkosi u-Balungeni Mthembu yona yathumela u-200 wezinsizwa, inkosi uMzwangendaba Cele yathumela ikhulu lezinsizwa, aba maningi impela amakhosi athumela izinsizwa kumaNgisi ukuba ziyokwelekelela .Zonke lezo nsizwa zaba yingxenye yebutho i-ANNC. Ezinye izizwe ezelekelela amaNgisi zaqhamuka koDrifontein, eNdaleni, eRockdale,naseDindela. Ibutho leANNC isibalo salo sagcina sesisikhulu impela kangangokuthi ngisho nezibhamu zagcina zingasaleneli, zagcina zibashodela . Ngakho-ke amaNgisi agcina esenqume ukuba ebuthweni i-ANNC anike oyedwa kwabalishumi(1 out of 10) isibhamu esisodwa nezinhlamvu ezine kuphela .
AmaNgisi wona ngaphezu kweANNC ayebophele amabutho ayebizwa ngama Column . IColumn 1 yayiholwa ngu Koloneli Charles Pearson , iColumn 2 iholwa ngu Koloneli Antony Durnford ,iColumn 3 yayiholwa nguLethenenti Koloneli Henry Pulleine, iColumn 4 yayiholwa ngu Evelyn Wood bese kuba yiCentre Column ka Jenene Federec Chelmsford . Umdidiyeli wayo yonke impi yamaNgisi kwakungu Jenene Lord Chelmsford . Wonke lamabutho agcina esehlanganisiwe akha ibutho i-BIF (British Imperial Force) .
Imbangela yempi yaseSandlwana:
Imbangela yempi yaseSandlwana kwaba wukuthi uZulu wayesekhathele yizenzo zamaNgisi ezinonya, ezaziyihlukumeza kakhulu ingabade. Imbangela enkulu eyathukuthelisa amaNgisi kwaba ukubulawa kwamakhosikazi enkosi u-Sihayo kaXhongo Ngobese ebulawa ngamadodana enkosi u-Sihayo . Owayehola amadodana enkosi u-Sihayo ekubulaweni kwalaba besimame kwaba u-Mehlokazulu kaSihayo Ngobese iNgobamakhosi. Ngakho-ke igama lakhe lalingapheli emilonyeni yamaNgisi . Isazathu sokubulawa kwamakhosikazi kwaba wukuthi babewasole ngokuwelela esilungwini bayophinga. Ngakho-ke amadodana enkosi u-Sihayo athi lapho ezwa ngokuwelela konina beya esilungwini beyophinga nawo abe esewela ayobathungatha. Kwathi lapho ebathola abe esebabulala bonke . Empeleni akekho owaziyo ukuthi kahle-hle yini eyenza ukuba amakhosikazi enkosi u-Sihayo awelele esilungwini. Kungenzeka ukuthi ayeyozikhonzela uThixo wamahlophe ngoba vele ngalezo zikhathi iningi labohlanga laseliqale ukwamukela uNkulunkulu wabamhlophe. Athukuthela athelwa ngamanzi amaNgisi uma ezwa ngokubulawa kwamakhosikazi enkosi u-Sihayo . Abe esekhipha umyalelo owawuthi iSilo u-Jininindi sinikele ngamadodana enkosi u-Sihayo azobhekana nengalo yomthetho ecaleni lawo lokubulala. Ayefuna kakhulu u-Mehlokazulu okuwuyena owayehamba phambili ekubulaleni amakhosikazi kayise. Omunye ayemfuna nguMntwana waseSwazini u-Mbilini kaMswazi wesibili owabe engumngane omkhulu kaMehlokazulu futhi owayekhona mhla kubulawa amakhosikazi enkosi. Aqhubeka ashayela uZulu imithetho ,kuleyo mithetho kwakukhona umyalelo owawuthi iSilo sichithe wonke amabutho izinsizwa zibuyele emakhaya ,kuchithwe ngisho namabutho ayeqaphe iSilo oNdini esigodlweni. Omunye wemiyalelo wawuthi asikho isigwebo sokuxosha umuntu kwaZulu esasizihlonishwa ngaphambi kokuba owayemele amaNgisi (ambassador) kwaZulu avume. Eqinisweni kwakuzofana nje nokuthi kwasekubusa wona amaNgisi kwaZulu. Yayiminingi nje imithetho abahishayela iSilo u-Jininindi kodwa yonke sayishaya indiva yonke leyo miyalelo yamaNgisi,sabe sesiqala naso ukuzilungiselela impi ngoba vele uZulu wayesezwile ukuthi amaNgisi nawo ayematasa elungiselela ukubhekana noZulu ngezikhali . UZulu nawo wawunazo izibhamu ize zazingekho ningi. Lezo zibhamu uZulu wayezithenga kuJohn Dunn (uJantoni) owayedazidayisa ngezinkomo. Kokunye u-Jantoni wayethatha izinkomo kubantu bese ebathembisa ukuthi izibhamu babezozithola maduze kodwa bagcine bengazitholanga ,nezinkomo zabo zivele zihamba nje kanjalo. U-Jantoni lo wayezenza umngane weNgonyama u-Jininindi ,ekhonze kwaZulu , kanti yayihlekisana ihlomelene ngoba kwathi lapho kuzoliwa eSandlwana u-Jantoni wasichitha iSilo sakithi wayozimbandakanya nabakubo amaNgisi ,walwa ngasohlangothini lwawo.
AmaMangisi ayeholwa nguJenene Frederic Chelmsford awela uMzinyathi eRorke’s Drift mhla zingama 9 ku Masingana . Bazihambela kahle izinsukwana bagcina benkanise ngaphansi kwentatshana iSandlwana , ngasemfudlaneni uMzanyana mhla ziyi 20 kuMasingana 1879. AmaNgisi ayebophele amabutho ayengale kuka 50 000,amanye awo ayehambe ngezinyawo ,amanye ayeqhuba izinqola ezazidonswa izinkabi eziyi -1000 zilayishe umthwalo owawungamathani ayeyi 5 ngayinye . Ibutho labohlanga i-ANNC lalibophe izindwangu ezibomvu emakhanda ukuze phela lehluke kuZulu. Amabutho kaZulu ayebuthene oNdini,eholwa umdidiyeli wawo u-Nontshingwayo kaMahole Khoza iNtontela . UNtshingwayo wayesizwa u-Mavumengwana kaNdlela Ntuli ukudidiyela uZulu. Ibutho likaNtshingwayo kwayiNtontela nokuyibutho elalimbandakanya uMntwana u-Senzangakhona ,u-Sotobe Sibiya,Ndlela Sibiya,Hlathi Ntshangase nabanye. Ngakho-ke ukhakhayi lwaseluqine ngempela kumfoka Khoza,wayelwazi ngempela udaba lwakhe engaluphumputhi . Esewonke amabutho kaZulu ayengama 40 000kukhona uMxhapho(uMntwana u-Zibhebhu wayekuleli butho), uBulawayo,iNdlondlo, uThulwana, uDukuza , iNgobamakhosi ,iNdabakawombe,uDududu,namanye. Ababesemakhaya bona babevikelwe amabutho esifazane uThiyane,amaDludlu,amaDuku,amaQhwaki namanye. Impi kaZuluyahamba ibanga elalingamakhilomitha ayi-80 iphikelele lapho kwakunkanise khona amaNgisi. Kwayithatha izinsuku ezinhlanu ukuba ifike khona. Izinduna zikaZulu zazihlele ukuhlasela amaNgisi ebusuku mhla zingama 23 kuMasingana ngoba ngalobo busuku unyezi lwaluzobe lugcwele kodwa amaNgisi agadla kuqala mhla zingama 22 ku Masingana 1879. UZulu wayesaziphumulele kwesikhabhadakazi sangomhlaka 22 amasimini ommbila buqamama nentshana iSandlwana ngenkathi ethelekelwa amaNgisi . Yakhala induku yamagwala . Kodwa umkhuzi wabo u-Koloneli Durnford wagcina eyikhuzile impi yakhe yase ihlehla . Ukuhlehla kwempi yamaNgisi kwayisiza kakhulu impi kaZulu ngoba kuthiwa ubumnyama babukhasa phansi kungekho nyezi . Seliphumile ilanga kwagcina kudumelene ibutho loMcijo namaNgisi yakhala futhi induku yamagwala . INgobamakhosi u-Mehlokazulu waxoxela uSolwazi Magema Fuze ukuthi yena nebutho lakhe iNgobamakhosi babeyisifuba sempi kaZulu . Uthi bawaqonda amaNgisi bedubula bebhekise ngakuwo . Ase engenwa yitwetwe uma ebona isibindi nokuzikhandla kweNgobamakhosi ase eqala ukuyeka ukudubula uMcijo ,aqala ukudubula ehlehla . INgobamakhosi kwakuyibutho losibindigidi induna yalo kungu Sigcwelegcwele ka Mhlekehle Mngadi . Athi uma esahlehla amaNgisi kwaqhamuka uKhandampevu owabe ewuphondo lwangakwesokudla nawo wadubula amaNgisi agcina adabuke phakathi . Yaqala lapho-ke inkinga kumaNgisi. UKhandampevu wawuholwa nguMkhosana kaMvundlana Biyela . Kwathi amNgisi asabheke uKhandampevu kwaqhamuka uVe olwaluholwa nguMthwahlazi uMntwana u-Dabulamanzi kaMpande nalo lwalalisa amaNgisi amaningi uyaca . Ekugcineni amaNgisi agcina egobe uphondo abe esecela empunzini ebheke enkanjini yawo ukuyoyivikela. Kodwa ngeshwa afikisana noKhandampevu noMbonambi . UKhandampevu noMbonambi babeye enkanjini yamaNgisi ngenhloso yokuyodla impahla yamaNgisi enjengemfuyo,ubucwebe,imali nokunye. Nalapho enkanjini zatholana phezulu kodwa kwacaca ukuthi uZulu wayengenhla kakhulu emaNgisini ngamandla . Ekugcineni amaNgisi agcina ebaleke ashiya inkamvu ingaqashwe muntu . Izinsizwa zikaZulu zabe sezingena-ke zazitika zazitika ngempahla yamaNgisi zadla izinkomo,zaze zaphuza ngisho nogologo imbala .
UMntwana u-Zibhebhu ,u-Mehlokazulu,uMntwana waseSwazini u-Mbilini babelwela ukufa nokuphila eSandlwana. UMntwana u-Mbilini phela naye wayeyingxenye yethimba elabulala amakhosikazi enkosi u-Sihayo futhi wayekade efunwa vele ngamaNgisi ngaphambi kokuba kuliwe eSandlwana ngoba wayewamise kabi impela . UMntwana u-Zibhebhu kukhona lapho adubulala abulala amaNgisi ayewathole egeza esizibeni kwaNolele . Ibutho lakhe kwakunguMxhapho . Kwahamba kwahamba uMntwana u-Zibhebhu wagcina esesetshenziswa yiwona futhi amaNgisi ukuba ahlukumeze uZulu . UGabangaye Mchunu ongomunye wabohlanga ababelwe ohlangothini lwaMaNgisi wasala eSandlwana
Ngasohlangothini lukaZulu kwaguqa amaqhawe esingabala kuwo oMkhosana kaMenziwa Biyela,uZikode kaMasiphula Ntshangase, uMathashile kaMasiphula Ntshangase, uNtando kaNtobolongwana Shezi , uSiqasha kaNqoboka Sokhulu,uVundlisa kaManzini Zungu nabanye .
Ake ngime lapho nina bakaHlamvana bhul’umlilo eNdulinde ububaswe nguMantshonga benoGqelebane!
#INtungwa lasenhla kwaSokhumalo
The Battle of Sandlwana:
22 January 1879
By Bonga Kholo Khumalo: iNtungwa laSenhla
The battle of Sandlwana was fought between the Zulus of King Cetshwayo son of Mpande and the British on 22 January 1879.The British suffered a humiliating defeat in a battle in which they far outnumbered the Zulu warriors.The British had embraced sell-outs and defectors from some sections of Zulus and incoporated them into their army. Another reason that led the British army to largely grow in numbers was the presence of the Batlokwa of chief Hlubi son of Motha who sent a reinforcement to their army.Besides the reinforcement that the British enjoyed,even before then,their number of whites only army far surpassed that of the Zulus as their army had soldiers from Canada,Austria,New Zealand,Austrelia,America as well as lndians and others.
Chief Hlubi contributed 800 warriors who became part of the African Natal Native Contingent(ANNC).This regiment the ANNC after its formation, fell under the command of the British brothers Samuel and Robert Samuelson.lts formation was lagerly by call ups around KwaZulu Natal territory and success on its formation was facilitated by the fact that some young warriors in Zululand were opposed to Jininindi son of Ndaba’s reign,in other words this regiment was a collection of sell-outs and defectors.lt’s military chiefs were:Stephen Mini,Jabez Molefe,Gabangaye Mchunu,Njengabantu Ngubane,Elijah Khambule and Simeon Khambule.Before Chief Hlubi’s reinforcement,the number of warriors for this regiment stood at 8 000 men.Some chiefs made other significant reinforcements which resulted to yet another growth of the ANNC regiment .Chief Homoyi of aMabomvu (clan) sent 500 young fighting men,Chief Ngcagca son of Fabase Dlomo sent 100, chief Nondise Luthuli 100, chief Balungeni Mthembu 200 and chief Mzwangendaba Cele sent 100 men and many other chiefs.All these fighting warriors formed the ANNC. Another reinforcement to the British army came from areas such as Drifontein,Ndaleni,Rockdale and Dindela.The ANNC regiment swelled to a huge number and this subsequently led to a shortage of firearms and for that reason,the British commanders issued one firearm and four rounds of ammunition per ten men.Apart from the ANNC regiment,the British had separate army battalions each known as a *Column*. Column 1 was led by Colonel Charles Pearson,Column 2 by Colonel Antony Durnford,Column 3 by Colonel Henry Pulleine,Column 4 by Evelyn Wood and the Centre Column was under the command of Federec Chelmsford.The commander in chief of the British armed forces was General Lord Chelmsford.These British forces were subsequently combined to form the British lmperial Force (BlF) .
*Causes of the battle of iSandlwana*
The causes of the battle of Sandlwana was because of the British brutality,persecution and oppression on the Zulus. The British on the other hand, were angered by the killing of chief Sihayo son of Xhongo Ngobese’s wives by his own sons.Chief Sihayo’s sons were led by their brother Mehlokazulu in the killing of their father’s wives.His name became a subject of discusion among the British.The chief’s wives were killed on suspicion that they had engaged into sexual activity and promiscuity with some British men.When chief Sihayo’s sons got disturbing news involving their mothers’,they pounced to the place where it was suspected the embarassing act was occuring.When they got to the place,they searched it and when they found them, they were killed.lt is not known what made the chief’s wives to associate with whites,it possibly could be that they had received and accepted the white people’s God who had been preached to them as it had become a norm among Africans to worship God during that period. The British were raged with anger after the murder of chief Sihayo’s wives.They ordered chief Jininindi to hand over chief Sihayo’s sons who were implicated in the murder of their father’s wives.The chief culprit was Mehlokazulu who led his other brothers to carry out the murder.Another most wanted culprit was Prince Mbilini son of king Mswati of Swaziland who was Mehlokazulu’s friend and was present during the killing of the chief’s wives. The British issued a series of decrees against Zulus and chief among them was one instructing the king to disband his entire warriors and order their return to their respective homes including his personal guards from his capital uLundi.Another issued instruction by the British clearly stated that there was no sentence in Zululand where the expulsion of a citizen would be effected and recognised unless with the approval of the British ambassador.ln reality,it was evidently clear that the British had absolute power and control as they endlessly passed their laws against chief Jininindi but he acted in defiance against them and started to prepare for war as the Zulus had full information that the British were preparing a full scale offensive attack on them.The Zulus had purchased a considerable number of firearms from John Dunn with a number of herd of cattle.John Dunn robbed them of many herd of cattle when they made advance payments as he promised to deliver their purchased firearms later,he however abrogated his promises and so many cattle were lost to him.John Dunn pretended to be friends with Chief Jininindi on the pretext that he had Zululand at heart yet it was a ploy to advance his own interests.Eventually chief Jininindi rejected to render military support to the Zulu king Cetshwayo.
*At iSandlwana hill*
The British, under the command of General Frederic Chelmsford,crossed Mzinyathi at Rorke’s Drift on 9 January 1879.They slowly travelled for a few days until they temporarily settled besides the hill of iSandlwana at Mzanyana river on 20 January 1879.The British had mounted over 50 000 soldiers some of whom had travelled by foot while others had travelled on ox-pulled waggons numbering 1000 that pulled a 5 tonne luggage each. The African regiment ANNC had for identification purposes a distinctive regalia from that of Zulus,they wore red cloths around their heads. The Zulu warriors had gathered at uLundi led by its chief military commander Ntshingwayo son of Mahole Khoza of iNtontela.Ntshingwayo was deputised by Mavumengwana son of Ndlela Ntuli in leading the Zulus. Ntshingwayo’s regiment was called iNtontela and it comprised Prince Senzangakhona,Sotobe Sibiya,Ndlela Sibiya,Hlathi Ntshangase and others.He (Ntshingwayo’s) military maturity and expirience could not be doubted.The Zulu warriors numbered to 40 000 and present in it was Mxhapho of Prince Zibhebhu ,Bulawayo,Ndlondlo,Thulwana,Dukuza,Ngobamakhosi,Ndabakawombe,Dududu and others. Those who remained home were protected by female regiments that comprised uThiyane,amaDludlu,amaDuku,amaQwaki and ohers. The Zulu warriors travelled 80 km to where the British army had settled and it took it 5 days to reach the place.Zulu military chiefs had organised an overnight attack on the British on 23 January as they hoped that the moonlight would be adequately clear however the British made an early attack on the Zulus on 22 January 1879.The Zulus had been taking a rest on the night of the 22nd January in the maize field adjacent to Sandlwana hill when they found themselves under the British military attack.There was a heavy British gunfire however their commander Colonel Durnford called his army to retreat .A retreat by the British army became a great advantage to the Zulus as darkness engulfed the fighting zone area.At sunrise,uMcijo regiment was up against the British army whose gunfire was heavily shot to mantain their glory. iNgobamakhosi according to Mehlokazulu’s narative to Professor Magema Fuze was that he and his Ngobamakhosi regiment were the main pillars of the Zulu fighters.He further gave an account of them confronting the British and shooting towards their direction,a move that terrified them as they witnessed the courage and fighting spirit of Ngobamakhosi and as a result,they stopped shooting at *Mcijo* and retreated. Ngobamakhosi was a couregeous and formidable regiment,its chief commander was Sigcwelegcwele son of Mhlekehle Mngadi. As the British retreated,Khandampevu regiment operating from the right emerged and shot at them too thereby causing them to split into two and that caused a huge problem for the British.Khandampevu was under the command of Mkhosana son of Mvundlana Biyela.As the British were still facing Khandampevu,another regiment *Ve* with Mthwahlazi at the helm,Prince Dabulamanzi son of Mpande slaughtered down many British soldiers.The British army eventually fled to their camp in a bid to defed it.Unfortunately when they got to their camp,they simulteniously arrived with Khandampevu and Mbonambi.The two regiments had rushed to the British camp to raid it for cattle,money and other treasures.At the camp,another fighting erupted, however, the Zulus immediately showed an upper hand during that encounter.The British army finally ran away and deserted the camp.The Zulu warriors raided cattle,goods and drank the beer they found. Prince Zibhebhu ,Prince Mehlomakhulu and Swazi Prince Mbilini fought fiecely at the battle of Sandlwana.Prince Mbilini was top on the list of those wanted by the British before the battle of iSandlwana as he had accompanied chief Sihayo’s sons when they murdered their mothers. Prince Zibhebhu at one stage had shot and killed some British men who were bathing at pool in Nolele river.His regiment was called *uMxhapho*. As time went by,Prince Zibhebhu was used by the British for sinister motives,he maltreated his own people.Gabangaye Mchunu who had fought alongside the British rendering his support for their cause, was killed at the battle of iSandlwana. The Zulu warriors who died at the battle of Sandlwana were: Mkhosana son of Menziwa Biyela,Zikode son of Masiphula Ntshangase,Mathashile son of Masiphula Ntshangase,Ntando son of Ntobolongwana Shezi,Siqasha son of Nqoboka Sokhulu,Vundlisa son of Manzini Zungu and others.
#INtungwa laSenhla kwasoKhumalo.
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